By Wirth N.
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Extra resources for Algorithms and data structures, Oberon version
The two classes are often called internal and external sorting because arrays are stored in the fast, high-speed, random-access "internal" store of computers and files are appropriate on the slower, but more spacious "external" stores based on mechanically moving devices (disks and tapes). The importance of this distinction is obvious from the example of sorting numbered cards. Wirth. Algorithms and Data Structures. Oberon version 51 front of the sorter so that each card is visible and individually accessible (see Fig.
An advantage of this algorithm is the transparency of its logic: the two loops are completely decoupled and one is hidden inside the function-procedure R. However, this same property may also be a disadvantage: firstly, the additional procedure call at each step of a potentially long loop may be too costly in such a basic operation as the string search. Secondly, the more sophisticated algorithms considered in subsequent sections make use of the information obtained in the inner loop in order to increase i in the external loop by a value larger than 1, so that the two loops are no longer independent.
Oberon version 33 x = dn-1 × 10n-1 + dn-2 × 10n-2 + … + d1 × 10 + d0 x = ( … (dn-1 × 10 + dn-2) × 10 + … + d1) × 10 + d0 Assume now that the sequence d is to be read and transformed, and the resulting numeric value to be assigned to x. The simple algorithm terminates with the reading of the first character that is not a digit. (Arithmetic overflow is not considered). CharsToNumber *) WHILE ("0" <= ch) & (ch <= "9") DO x := 10*x + (ORD(ch) - ORD("0")); Read(ch) END In the case of output the transformation is complexified by the fact that the decomposition of x into decimal digits yields them in the reverse order.
Algorithms and data structures, Oberon version by Wirth N.