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Extra info for Alkyl Polyglycosides: Technology, Properties, and Applications
He showed that the two-phase region is influenced to a far greater extent by the length of the alkyl chain than in the case of alkyl polyglycol ethers (C,E,). If it is assumed that the cloud point of alkyl polyglycol ethers is linearly dependent on the alkyl chain length, a shortening of the alkyl chain by two carbon atoms represents an increase in the cloud point of around 15“C. By contrast, in the case of alkyl polyglycosides, the lower consolute temperature of a C,,,,, alkyl polyglycoside is between about 20 and 40 “C, depending on the chain length distribution and the degree of polymerization.
A typical high temperature gas chromatogramof a commercial alkyl polyglycoside sample is shown in Figure 1. The first group of peaks relates to the alkyl monoglycosides. They are separated according to carbon chain length and, in addition, into furanosides and pyranosides and a-and P-anomers. The high separation efficiencyof HTGC is demonstrated in Figure 2 which shows a magnified segment of an alkyl polyglycoside HTGC chromatogram. Nearly all the species in this segment are baseline-separated and can therefore be clearly identified and quantified.
C. -%I Figure 5. 8 [81 The dependence of the two-phase region on the alkyl chain length was elucidated in more detail by mixing Clo/lzalkyl polyglycoside with C,,,,, APG. If increasing quantities of C10/12alkyl polyglycoside are added to C,,,,, APG, the initially broad miscibility gap becomes gradually narrower (Figure 6),the separation zone separates from the Krafft point curve and a lower separation point becomes visible. Accordingly, the dependence of the clouding effect for alkyl polyglycosides is comparable with that of alkyl polyglycol ethers, although the dependence on chain length is extremely strong for alkyl polyglycosides.
Alkyl Polyglycosides: Technology, Properties, and Applications by Karlheinz Hill, Wolfgang von Rybinski, Gerhard Stoll